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    Why the 2023 Atlantic hurricane season is especially hard to predict

    It’s hard to know how busy this year’s Atlantic hurricane season will be, thanks to a rarely observed combination of ocean and climate conditions.

    The Atlantic Ocean is in an active storm era, a yearslong period of increasing storm activity. Plus sea surface temperatures there are much higher than usual this year, which can fuel storms, Matthew Rosencrans, the lead hurricane forecaster for the U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, said May 25 at a news conference. But this year will also see the onset of an El Niño phase of the El Niño-Southern Oscillation ocean and climate pattern, which tends to suppress hurricane formation.

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    That’s not a scenario that has occurred in historical records often, Rosencrans said. “It’s definitely kind of a rare setup for this year.”

    He and his colleagues reported that there’s a 40 percent chance that Atlantic hurricane activity will be near normal this year. Near normal is actually unusually high for an El Niño year. But there’s also a 30 percent chance that activity will be above normal, and a 30 percent chance it’ll be below normal.

    Overall, the agency is predicting 12 to 17 named storms, of which five to nine are predicted to become hurricanes, with sustained wind speeds of at least 119 kilometers per hour (74 miles per hour). Between one and four of those hurricanes could be category 3 or greater, with wind speeds of at least 178 kph (111 mph). The Atlantic hurricane season officially begins on June 1 and ends November 30.

    There’s little consensus among other groups’ predictions, in part due to the uncertainty of what role El Niño will play. On April 13, Colorado State University, in Fort Collins, announced that it anticipated a below-average season, with just 13 named storms, including six hurricanes. On May 26, the U.K. Meteorological Office announced that it predicts an extremely busy hurricane season in the Atlantic, with 20 named storms, including 11 hurricanes, of which five could be category 3 or greater. The long-term average from 1991 to 2020 is 14 named storms.

    So far, 23 different groups have submitted predictions for the 2023 Atlantic season to a platform hosted by the Barcelona Supercomputing Center in Spain, which allows users to compare and contrast the various predictions. There’s a large spread among these predictions, ranging “from below average to well above average,” says Philip Klotzbach, an atmospheric scientist at Colorado State University who is responsible for the group’s seasonal Atlantic hurricane forecasts.

    That spread is likely the result of two big sources of uncertainty, Klotzbach says: the strength of the El Niño (and when during the year it’s expected to develop), and whether the Atlantic’s surface water temperatures will stay above average.

    Each group’s forecast is based on a compilation of many different computer simulations of ocean and atmospheric conditions that might develop during the hurricane season. How often those models agree leads to a probability estimate. NOAA’s models struggled to agree: “That’s why probabilities are not 60 to 70 percent,” Rosencrans said. “That’s to reflect there’s a lot of uncertainty this year in the outlook.”

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    An emerging El Niño phase is signaled by abnormally warm waters in the equatorial Pacific Ocean, which in turn is tied to shifts in wind strength and humidity around the globe. One of the ways that El Niño tinkers with climate is that it alters the strength of winds in the upper atmosphere over the northern Atlantic Ocean. Those stronger winds can shear off the tops of developing storms, hampering hurricane formation. Warmer ocean waters like those in the Atlantic right now, on the other hand, fuel hurricanes by adding energy to storm systems. How active a season it will be depends on which of those two forces will prevail.

    The Met Office, for example, reported that its climate simulations suggest that the wind shear due to this year’s El Niño will be relatively weak, while surface ocean temperatures will remain well above average. Similarly anomalously warm waters in 2017 were found the be the primary cause behind that year’s glut of intense Atlantic hurricanes (SN: 9/28/18).

    In the future, hurricane forecasts could become ever more uncertain. It’s unknown how climate change will affect large-scale ocean and climate patterns such as the El Niño-Southern Oscillation in general (SN: 8/21/19). Computer simulations have suggested that as the atmosphere warms, these globe-scale “teleconnections” may become somewhat disconnected, which also makes them potentially harder to predict (SN: 2/13/23). Climate change is also expected to increase ocean temperatures.

    Meanwhile, on the other side of the world, the Pacific Ocean’s hurricane season has already begun with a powerful storm, Super Typhoon Mawar, which battered Guam as a category 4 cyclone before roaring toward the Philippines on May 25, strengthening to category 5. More

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    Emergence of solvated dielectrons observed for the first time

    Solvated dielectrons are the subject of many hypotheses among scientists, but have never been directly observed. They are described as a pair of electrons that is dissolved in liquids such as water or liquid ammonia. To make space for the electrons a cavity forms in the liquid, which the two electrons occupy. An international research team around Dr. Sebastian Hartweg, initially at Synchrotron SOLEIL (France), now at the Institute of Physics at the University of Freiburg and Prof. Dr. Ruth Signorell from ETH Zurich, including scientists from the synchrotron SOLEIL and Auburn University (US) has now succeeded in discovering a formation and decay process of the solvated dielectron. In experiments at the synchrotron SOLEIL (DESIRS beamline), the consortium found direct evidence supported by quantum chemical calculations for the formation of these electron pairs by excitation with ultraviolet light in tiny ammonia droplets containing a single sodium atom. The results were recently published in the scientific journal Science.
    Traces of an unusual process
    When dielectrons are formed by excitation with ultraviolet light in tiny ammonia droplets containing a sodium atom, they leave traces in an unusual process that scientists have now been able to observe for the first time. In this process, one of the two electrons migrates to the neighbouring solvent molecules, while at the same time the other electron is ejected. “The surprising thing about this is that similar processes have previously been observed mainly at much higher excitation energies,” says Hartweg. The team focused on this second electron because there could be interesting applications for it. On the one hand, the ejected electron is produced with very low kinetic energy, so it moves very slowly. On the other hand, this energy can be controlled by the irradiated UV light, which starts the whole process. Solvated dielectrons could thus serve as a good source of low-energy electrons.
    Generated specifically with variable energy
    Such slow electrons can set a wide variety of chemical processes in motion. For example, they play a role in the cascade of processes that lead to radiation damage in biological tissue. They are also important in synthetic chemistry, where they serve as effective reducing agents. By being able to selectively generate slow electrons with variable energy, the mechanisms of such chemical processes can be studied in more detail in the future. In addition, the energy made available to the electrons in a controlled manner might also be used to increase the effectiveness of reduction reactions. “These are interesting prospects for possible applications in the future,” says Hartweg. “Our work provides the basis for this and helps to understand these exotic and still enigmatic solvated dielectrons a little better.” More

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    Protein-based nano-‘computer’ evolves in ability to influence cell behavior

    The first protein-based nano-computing agent that functions as a circuit has been created by Penn State researchers. The milestone puts them one step closer to developing next-generation cell-based therapies to treat diseases like diabetes and cancer.
    Traditional synthetic biology approaches for cell-based therapies, such as ones that destroy cancer cells or encourage tissue regeneration after injury, rely on the expression or suppression of proteins that produce a desired action within a cell. This approach can take time (for proteins to be expressed and degrade) and cost cellular energy in the process. A team of Penn State College of Medicine and Huck Institutes of the Life Sciences researchers are taking a different approach.
    “We’re engineering proteins that directly produce a desired action,” said Nikolay Dokholyan, G. Thomas Passananti Professor and vice chair for research in the Department of Pharmacology. “Our protein-based devices or nano-computing agents respond directly to stimuli (inputs) and then produce a desired action (outputs).”
    In a study published in Science Advances today (May 26) Dokholyan and bioinformatics and genomics doctoral student Jiaxing Chen describe their approach to creating their nano-computing agent. They engineered a target protein by integrating two sensor domains, or areas that respond to stimuli. In this case, the target protein responds to light and a drug called rapamycin by adjusting its orientation, or position in space.
    To test their design, the team introduced their engineered protein into live cells in culture. By exposing the cultured cells to the stimuli, they used equipment to measure changes in cellular orientation after cells were exposed to the sensor domains’ stimuli.
    Previously, their nano-computing agent required two inputs to produce one output. Now, Chen says there are two possible outputs and the output depends on which order the inputs are received. If rapamycin is detected first, followed by light, the cell will adopt one angle of cell orientation, but if the stimuli are received in a reverse order, then the cell adopts a different orientation angle. Chen says this experimental proof-of-concept opens the door for the development of more complex nano-computing agents.
    “Theoretically, the more inputs you embed into a nano-computing agent, the more potential outcomes that could result from different combinations,” Chen said. “Potential inputs could include physical or chemical stimuli and outputs could include changes in cellular behaviors, such as cell direction, migration, modifying gene expression and immune cell cytotoxicity against cancer cells.”
    The team plans to further develop their nano-computing agents and experiment with different applications of the technology. Dokholyan, a researcher with Penn State Cancer Institute and Penn State Neuroscience Institute, said their concept could someday form the basis of the next-generation cell-based therapies for various diseases, such as autoimmune diseases, viral infections, diabetes, nerve injury and cancer.
    Yashavantha Vishweshwaraiah, Richard Mailman and Erdem Tabdanov of Penn State College of Medicine also contributed to this research. The authors declare no conflicts of interest.
    This work was funded by the National Institutes of Health (grant 1R35GM134864) and the Passan Foundation. More

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    This house was built partly from recycled diapers

    Meet the house that diapers built.

    Researchers have designed and erected a house that has shredded, disposable diapers mixed into its concrete and mortar. A single-story home of about 36 square meters can pack nearly 2 cubic meters of used diapers into its floors, columns and walls, the team reports May 18 in Scientific Reports.

    Using recycled diapers as composite building materials would not only shrink landfill waste but also could make such homes more affordable, the team says, a particular need in developing countries like Indonesia where the demand for low-cost housing far outstrips the supply.

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    Indonesia’s urban population has increased by about 4 percent per year in the last three decades, and more of its people are moving to urban centers. Over two-thirds of Indonesians are expected to live in urban areas by 2025, says environmental engineer Siswanti Zuraida of the University of Kitakyushu in Japan. That population boom is putting a heavy strain on both housing demand and waste management, says Zuraida, who is originally from Indonesia. Used disposable diapers mostly pile up in landfills or get incinerated, adding to a growing waste problem.

    The materials used to build a house, meanwhile, particularly those needed to shore up its structural integrity, are often the biggest barrier to making homes affordable. So researchers have previously examined the possibility of using a wide variety of unconventional materials that could also save costs. These materials included many that would otherwise pile up as waste, such as the husks of rice grains or fly ash, the fine residue left over from the combustion of pulverized coal. Disposable diapers, as it happens, contain a lot of potentially useful building material, such as wood pulp, cotton, rayon and plastic.

    Zuraida and colleagues assessed how much of the sand, gravel and other traditional building materials used in mortar and concrete could be replaced by diapers — washed, dried, sterilized and shredded — without reducing the strength of the structures. They created six different samples of concrete and mortar by mixing different proportions of diaper material with cement, sand, gravel and water. Crushing the samples in a machine let the researchers test how much weight each could bear.

    The team then went on to design — and then build — a small, single-story, two-bedroom, one-bathroom home based on the maximum amount of diaper waste they calculated they could use. Recycled diapers could replace up to 27 percent of the traditional materials used in load-bearing structural components like columns and beams without losing significant strength, the team found. For buildings with more floors, that fraction is somewhat less: A three-story home could use up to 10 percent disposable diapers in its load-bearing structures, the team calculated. As for nonstructural components like wall partitions or garden paving blocks, shredded diapers could replace up to 40 percent of the sand.

    Despite the need for more affordable housing, there are significant hitches that stand in the way of adopting diapers or other low-impact nonconventional materials, Zuraida says.

    Diapers’ plastic components would have to be separated from the organic fibers, a complicated recycling process currently available only in developed nations. And Indonesia’s building regulations restrict construction materials to concrete, bricks, wood and ceramics — materials that also bear a high cost in terms of carbon emissions.

    “Thinking about how to use waste for other purposes is an excellent idea,” says chemist Christof Schröfl of Technische Universität Dresden in Germany. But there may be limits on the ultimate environmental friendliness of repurposing used diapers in buildings, he says, due to the existing challenges of separating and sanitizing diapers in waste. “It’s maybe worthwhile to start thinking about ways to replace single-use diapers” with something less frequently disposed of. More

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    Robots and Rights: Confucianism Offers Alternative

    Philosophers and legal scholars have explored significant aspects of the moral and legal status of robots, with some advocating for giving robots rights. As robots assume more roles in the world, a new analysis reviewed research on robot rights, concluding that granting rights to robots is a bad idea. Instead, the article looks to Confucianism to offer an alternative.
    The analysis, by a researcher at Carnegie Mellon University (CMU), appears in Communications of the ACM, published by the Association for Computing Machinery.
    “People are worried about the risks of granting rights to robots,” notes Tae Wan Kim, Associate Professor of Business Ethics at CMU’s Tepper School of Business, who conducted the analysis. “Granting rights is not the only way to address the moral status of robots: Envisioning robots as rites bearers — not a rights bearers — could work better.”
    Although many believe that respecting robots should lead to granting them rights, Kim argues for a different approach. Confucianism, an ancient Chinese belief system, focuses on the social value of achieving harmony; individuals are made distinctively human by their ability to conceive of interests not purely in terms of personal self-interest, but in terms that include a relational and a communal self. This, in turn, requires a unique perspective on rites, with people enhancing themselves morally by participating in proper rituals.
    When considering robots, Kim suggests that the Confucian alternative of assigning rites — or what he calls role obligations — to robots is more appropriate than giving robots rights. The concept of rights is often adversarial and competitive, and potential conflict between humans and robots is concerning.
    “Assigning role obligations to robots encourages teamwork, which triggers an understanding that fulfilling those obligations should be done harmoniously,” explains Kim. “Artificial intelligence (AI) imitates human intelligence, so for robots to develop as rites bearers, they must be powered by a type of AI that can imitate humans’ capacity to recognize and execute team activities — and a machine can learn that ability in various ways.”
    Kim acknowledges that some will question why robots should be treated respectfully in the first place. “To the extent that we make robots in our image, if we don’t treat them well, as entities capable of participating in rites, we degrade ourselves,” he suggests.
    Various non-natural entities — such as corporations — are considered people and even assume some Constitutional rights. In addition, humans are not the only species with moral and legal status; in most developed societies, moral and legal considerations preclude researchers from gratuitously using animals for lab experiments. More

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    Making the structure of ‘fire ice’ with nanoparticles

    Cage structures made with nanoparticles could be a route toward making organized nanostructures with mixed materials, and researchers at the University of Michigan have shown how to achieve this through computer simulations.
    The finding could open new avenues for photonic materials that manipulate light in ways that natural crystals can’t. It also showcased an unusual effect that the team is calling entropy compartmentalization.
    “We are developing new ways to structure matter across scales, discovering the possibilities and what forces we can use,” said Sharon Glotzer, the Anthony C. Lembke Department Chair of Chemical Engineering, who led the study published today in Nature Chemistry. “Entropic forces can stabilize even more complex crystals than we thought.”
    While entropy is often explained as disorder in a system, it more accurately reflects the system’s tendency to maximize its possible states. Often, this ends up as disorder in the colloquial sense. Oxygen molecules don’t huddle together in a corner — they spread out to fill a room. But if you put them in the right size box, they will naturally order themselves into a recognizable structure.
    Nanoparticles do the same thing. Previously, Glotzer’s team had shown that bipyramid particles — like two short, three-sided pyramids stuck together at their bases — will form structures resembling that of fire ice if you put them into a sufficiently small box. Fire ice is made of water molecules that form cages around methane, and it can burn and melt at the same time. This substance is found in abundance under the ocean floor and is an example of a clathrate. Clathrate structures are under investigation for a range of applications, such as trapping and removing carbon dioxide from the atmosphere.
    Unlike water clathrates, earlier nanoparticle clathrate structures had no gaps to fill with other materials that might provide new and interesting possibilities for altering the structure’s properties. The team wanted to change that.

    “This time, we investigated what happens if we change the shape of the particle. We reasoned that if we truncate the particle a little, it would create space in the cage made by the bipyramid particles,” said Sangmin Lee, a recent doctoral graduate in chemical engineering and first author of the paper.
    He took the three central corners off each bipyramid and discovered the sweet spot where spaces appeared in the structure but the sides of the pyramids were still intact enough that they didn’t start organizing in a different way. The spaces filled in with more truncated bipyramids when they were the only particle in the system. When a second shape was added, that shape became the trapped guest particle.
    Glotzer has ideas for how to create selectively sticky sides that would enable different materials to act as cage and guest particles, but in this case, there was no glue holding the bipyramids together. Instead, the structure was completely stabilized by entropy.
    “What’s really fascinating, looking at the simulations, is that the host network is almost frozen. The host particles move, but they all move together like a single, rigid object, which is exactly what happens with water clathrates,” Glotzer said. “But the guest particles are spinning around like crazy — like the system dumped all the entropy into the guest particles.”
    This was the system with the most degrees of freedom that the truncated bipyramids could build in a limited space, but nearly all the freedom belonged to the guest particles. Methane in water clathrates rotates too, the researchers say. What’s more, when they removed the guest particles, the structure threw bipyramids that had been part of the networked cage structure into the cage interiors — it was more important to have spinning particles available to maximize the entropy than to have complete cages.
    “Entropy compartmentalization. Isn’t that cool? I bet that happens in other systems too — not just clathrates,” Glotzer said.
    Thi Vo, a former postdoctoral researcher in chemical engineering at U-M and now an assistant professor of chemical and biomolecular engineering at the Johns Hopkins University, contributed to the study.
    This study was funded by the Department of Energy and Office of Naval Research, with computing resources provided by the National Science Foundation’s Extreme Science and Engineering Discovery Environment and the University of Michigan.
    Glotzer is also the John Werner Cahn Distinguished University Professor of Engineering, the Stuart W. Churchill Collegiate Professor of Chemical Engineering, and a professor of materials science and engineering, macromolecular science and engineering, and physics. More

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    Stretchable knee wearable offers insight into improving e-textiles for healthcare

    Mobility limitation is an initial stage of human mobility disability and an early sign of functional decline. It can manifest as muscle weakness, loss of balance, unsteady gait, and joint pain. Long-term and continuous monitoring of joint motion may potentially prevent or delay decline by allowing the early diagnosis, prognosis, and management of mobility-related conditions.
    This long-term and continuous monitoring is made possible by analysis systems that are either non-wearable or wearable. Non-wearable systems are reliable, but require a laboratory environment and trained individuals and are therefore impractical for daily use. On the other hand, wearable systems are portable, cheaper, and much easier to use. Unfortunately, typical wearable sensors tend to be inflexible and bulky.
    A relatively new player to the wearable systems field are wearables made from conductive fabric (CF), which are soft, lightweight, malleable, and non-invasive. These sensors are comfortable and suitable for long-term monitoring. However, most CF-based wearables become error-prone if displaced from their intended location and rely on external components that restrict the sensitivity and working range of the sensors.
    To overcome these limitations, a research team created a wearable with a high degree of functional and design freedom. Associate Professor Low Hong Yee and her colleagues from the Singapore University of Technology and Design (SUTD) collaborated with Dr Tan Ngiap Chuan of SingHealth Polyclinics and published their research paper, ‘All knitted and integrated soft wearable of high stretchability and sensitivity for continuous monitoring of human joint motion’ in Advanced Healthcare Materials.
    According to Associate Professor Low, their key considerations when designing the wearable were sensor data accuracy and reliability and for the sensor to rely on as few external components as possible. The result was a highly stretchable, fully functional sensing circuit made from a single fabric. Because the knee joint is important for lower limb mobility, the wearable was designed for the knee.
    To develop this single-fabric circuit, the team mechanically coupled an electrically conductive yarn with a dielectric yarn of high elasticity in various stitch patterns. Dimensions were customised according to the subject’s leg. The functional components — sensors, interconnects, and resistors — formed a stretchable circuit on the fully knitted wearable that allowed real-time data to be obtained.

    However, putting together sensors, interconnects, and resistors in a single stretchable knit is difficult. Associate Professor Low mentioned that “the synergy of yarns with different electrical and mechanical properties to achieve high signal sensitivity and high stretchability” was challenging, as the desired properties for each component were vastly different.
    Sensors need to produce a large change in resistance for enhanced sensitivity, while interconnects and resistors need fixed resistances of the highest and lowest values, respectively. As such, the researchers optimised yarn composition and stitch type for each component before connecting the functional circuit to a circuit board contained in a pocket of the wearable, allowing for wireless transmission of real-time data.
    With a soft knee wearable developed, its components functional, and data transmission possible, it was time to test the performance of the wearable. The team assessed the wearable through extension-flexion, walking, jogging, and staircase activities. Subjects wore the knee wearable together with reflective markers that were detected by a motion capture system, allowing the comparison between sensor data and actual joint movement.
    The sensor response time was less than 90 milliseconds for a step input, which is fast enough to monitor the human movements included in the study. Additionally, the smallest change in joint angle that the sensors could detect was 0.12 degrees. The sensor data showed strong correlation with joint movement data acquired from the motion capture system, demonstrating reliability of the sensor data.
    The potential impact of such device in the medical field is huge. Long-term continuous monitoring of joint motion is important to track mobility-related conditions. Often, people ignore early signs of mobility decline as they are not deemed serious enough to seek help. Wearable technology solves this problem by assessing a user’s mobility directly in real-time.
    Embedding a user-friendly sensor circuit into a soft and comfortable fabric may increase the public’s adoption of wearable technology, especially among athletes and the elderly. Data can be gathered in real-time and translated into indicators that can detect mobility decline. When signs of mobility decline are found, preventive care, prognosis, and management of the healthcare condition can be given.
    Building on this work, the team intends to study the effect of sweat and humidity on sensor signals and to extend the research to include subjects from both healthy and unhealthy populations in the future. “We have started working on extending the wearable to special user groups and to monitor other body joints, such as the shoulder,” stated Associate Professor Low. “We’re also looking at securing an incubation fund to explore the commercialisation potential of the wearable.”
    Video: https://youtu.be/KPlSPtDVs2k More

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    Quantum scientists accurately measure power levels one trillion times lower than usual

    Scientists in Finland have developed a nanodevice that can measure the absolute power of microwave radiation down to the femtowatt level at ultra-low temperatures — a scale trillion times lower than routinely used in verifiable power measurements. The device has the potential to significantly advance microwave measurements in quantum technology.
    Measuring extremely low power
    Quantum science takes place mostly at ultra-low temperatures using devices called dilution refrigerators. The experiments also have to be done at tiny energy levels — down to the energy level of single photons or even less. Researchers have to measure these extremely low energy levels as accurately as possible, which means also accounting for heat — a persistent problem for quantum devices.
    To measure heat in quantum experiments, scientists use a special type of thermometer called a bolometer. An exceptionally accurate bolometer was recently developed at Aalto by a team led by Mikko Möttönen, associate professor of quantum technology at Aalto and VTT, but the device had more uncertainty than they had hoped for. Although it enabled them to observe the relative power level, they couldn’t determine the absolute amount of energy very accurately.
    In the new study, Möttönen’s team worked with researchers at the quantum-technology companies Bluefors and IQM, and VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland to improve the bolometer.
    ‘We added a heater to the bolometer, so we can apply a known heater current and measure the voltage. Since we know the precise amount of power we’re putting into the heater, we can calibrate the power of the input radiation against the heater power. The result is a self-calibrating bolometer working at low temperatures, which allows us to accurately measure absolute powers at cryogenic temperatures,’ Möttönen says.

    According to Russell Lake, director of quantum applications at Bluefors, the new bolometer is a significant step forward in measuring microwave power.
    ‘Commercial power sensors typically measure power at the scale of one milliwatt. This bolometer does that accurately and reliably at one femtowatt or below. That’s a trillion times less power than used in typical power calibrations.’
    Covering both deep and wide scales
    Möttönen explains that the new bolometer could improve the performance of quantum computers. ‘For accurate results, the measurement lines used to control qubits should be at very low temperatures, void of any thermal photons and excess radiation. Now with this bolometer, we can actually measure that radiation temperature without interference from the qubit circuitry,’ he says.
    The bolometer also covers a very broad range of frequencies.

    ‘The sensor is broadband, which means that it can measure what is the power absorbed in various frequencies. This is not a given in quantum technology as usually the sensors are limited to a very narrow band,’ says Jean-Philippe Girard, a scientist at Bluefors who also previously worked at Aalto on the device.
    The team says the bolometer provides a major boost to quantum technology fields.
    ‘Measuring microwaves happens in wireless communications, radar technology, and many other fields. They have their ways of performing accurate measurements, but there was no way to do the same when measuring very weak microwave signals for quantum technology. The bolometer is an advanced diagnostic instrument that has been missing from the quantum technology toolbox until now,’ Lake says.
    The work is a result of seamless collaboration between Aalto University and Bluefors, a perfect example of academy and industry complementing each other’s strengths. The device was developed at Aalto’s Quantum Computing and Devices (QCD) group, which is part of the Academy of Finland Centre of Excellence in Quantum Technology (QTF). They used Micronova cleanrooms that belong to the national research infrastructure OtaNano. Since the first experiments at Aalto, Bluefors has also successfully tested these devices in their own industrial facilities.
    ‘That shows that this is not just a lucky break in a university lab, but something that both the industrial and the academic professionals working in quantum technology can benefit from,’ Möttönen says. More